News outlets and social media accounts and pages have circulated an image from a Turkish-language book, which the map of modern Turkey, which includes parts of northern Iraq and Syria. They have claimed that “in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th grade in the Turkish curriculum.”
They said that this map annexes the Syrian city of Aleppo, Idlib, Tartus, Raqqa, Hama, and parts of Homs to Turkey.
Verify platform looked for this map in the Turkish curriculum and found out that this map is mentioned in the framework of discussing what is known as the National Oath (Misak-ı Millî). It is published in a book called “The History of Coup in The Turkish and Ataturkian Republic,” which is an assistant book of the eighth grade that is not published by Turkey’s Ministry of National Education. The map can be seen on page 68.
The book cover and the map
A photo of the Republic of Turkey from the same book.
The National Oath (Misak-ı Millî) was adopted by the Ottoman Parliament on February 28,1920, following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War and the seizure of most of its territories by the Allies.
According to the Oath, a map of the territories that must be retaken was formed. The map included, in addition to the present-day Turkey, Bulgarian territories and Greece in the west of Turkey, the Iraqi Kurdistan and al-Mosul from the east, along with the Syrian province of Aleppo and large parts of northern Syria.
Under the Treaty of Sèvre (1920), Turkey was committed to recognize Syria and Iraq as territories under the French and British mandate, while some areas were contentious issues between the new-born Turkey and the Mandate countries, until the borders were demarcated in its current form in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne II in 1923 and subsequent agreements.
The para/graph attached to the map reads, “The borders of the Turkish homeland were demarcated in accordance with the ‘Misak-ı Millî’ (National Oath), and was faced with occupation, decisions taken in Erzurum and Swas conferences were accepted by the Chamber of Deputies (the Ottoman Parliament)”
Of note, the map used in the Turkish curriculum differs from the National Oath map. Below is the Map of Turkey published in the Turkish curriculum from the 7th to the 10th grade.
The Map of Turkey (the 7th grade)
The Map of Turkey (the 8th grade)
The Map of Turkey (the 9th grade)
The Map of Turkey (the 10th grade)
Since 1939, Alexandretta and Scanderoon is a contested zone between Syria and Turkey. However, the contest does not include the Syrian cities of Aleppo, Idlib, Latakia, Tartus, Hama, Raqqa or parts of Homs.